data1. If errno contains a nonzero number, is there an error?

The global variable errno is used by many standard C library functions to pass back to your program an error code that denotes specifically which error occurred. However, your program should not check the value of errnoto determine whether an error occurred.
Usually, the standard C library function you are calling returns with a return code which denotes that an error has occurred and that the value of errno has been set to a specific error number. If no error has occurred or if you are using a library function that does not reference errno, there is a good chance that errno will contain an erroneous value. For performance enhancement, the errno variable is sometimes not cleared by the functions that use it.

2. What is a stream?

A stream is a continuous series of bytes that flow into or out of your program. Input and output from devices such as the mouse, keyboard, disk, screen, modem, and printer are all handled with streams. In C, all streams appear as files – not physical disk files necessarily, but rather logical files that refer to an input/output source. The C language provides five “standard” streams that are always available to your program. These streams do not have to be opened or closed. These are the five standard streams:
Name           Description           Example
stdin     –     Standard Input     –     Keyboard
stdout     –     Standard Output     –     Screen
stderr     –     Standard Error     –     Screen
stdprn     –     Standard Printer     –     LPT1: port
stdaux     –     Standard Auxiliary     –     COM1: port

3. How do you redirect a standard stream?

Most operating systems, including DOS, provide a means to redirect program input and output to and from different devices. This means that rather than your program output (stdout) going to the screen, it can be redirected to a file or printer port. Similarly, your program’s input (stdin) can come from a file rather than the keyboard. In DOS, this task is accomplished using the redirection characters, < and >. For example, if you wanted a program named PRINTIT.EXE to receive its input (stdin) from a file named STRINGS.TXT, you would enter the following command at the DOS prompt:


freopen(“output.txt”, “w”, stdout);

4. How can you restore a redirected standard stream?

The preceding example showed how you can redirect a standard stream from within your program. But what if later in your program you wanted to restore the standard stream to its original state? By using the standard C library functions named dup() and fdopen(), you can restore a standard stream such as stdout to its original state.

The dup() function duplicates a file handle. You can use the dup() function to save the file handle corresponding to the stdout standard stream. The fdopen() function opens a stream that has been duplicated with the dup() function.

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