31. What is a SQL view? Briefly explain the use of views.
A SQL view is a virtual table built from other tables or views. Views are used to (1) hide columns or rows, (2) show the results of computed columns, (3) hide complicated SQL syntax, (4) layer built-in functions, (5) provide a level of indirection between application programs and tables, (6) assign different sets of processing permissions to tables, and (7) to assign different sets of triggers to the same table.
32. Explain the “paradigm mismatch” between SQL and application programming languages.
SQL statements return a set of rows, while an application program works on one row at a time. To resolve this mismatch the results of SQL statements are processed as pseudofiles, using a cursor or pointer to specify which row is being processed.
33. Name four applications for triggers.
(1) providing default values, (2) enforcing data constraints, (3) updating views and (4) enforcing referential integrity
34. What are stored procedures, and how do they differ from triggers?
A stored procedure is a program that is stored within the database and is compiled when used. They can receive input parameters and they can return results. Unlike triggers, their scope is database-wide; they can be used by any process that has permission to use the database stored procedure.
35. What are the advantages of using stored procedures?
The advantages of stored procedures are (1) greater security, (2) decreased network traffic, (3) the fact that SQL can be optimized and (4) code sharing which leads to less work, standardized processing, and specialization among developers.
36. Why is database redesign necessary?
Database redesign is necessary for two reasons. First, redesign is necessary both to fix mistakes made during the initial database design. Second, redesign is necessary to adapt the database to changes in system requirements. Such changes are common because information systems and organizations do not just influence each other they create each other. Thus, new information systems cause changes in systems requirements.
37. What is the difference between a correlated subquery and a regular subquery?
A correlated subquery appears deceptively similar to a regular subquery. The difference is that a regular subquery can be processed from the bottom up. In a regular subquery, results from the lowest query can be determined and used to evaluate the upper-level query. In contrast, in a correlated subquery, the processing is nested; that is, a row from an upper query statement is used in comparison with rows in a lower level query. The key distinction of a correlated subquery is that the lower-level select statements use columns from upper-level statements.
38. What is a dependency graph?
A dependency graph is a diagram that is used to portray the connections between database elements. For example, a change in a table can potentially impact relationships, views, indexes, triggers, stored procedures, and application programs. These impacts need to be known and accounted for before making database changes.
39. Explain how to add a NOT NULL column to a table.
First, add the column as NULL. Then use UPDATE to add data to every row. Finally use an ALTER TABLE . . . ALTER COLUMN statement to change the column constraint to NOT NULL.
40. You have two tables, EMPLOYEE and COMPUTER that are in a one-to-one relationship. The foreign key is EmpNumber in COMPUTER which references EmpNumber as the primary key of EMPLOYEE. Explain what must be done to convert the one-to-one EMPLOYEE-COMPUTER relationship to a one-to-many relationship where one employee can have more than one computer.
In the one-to-one relationship, there will be a constraint on EmpNumber as a foreign key in COMPUTER stating that EmpNumber must be unique. To convert the relationship to a one-to-many relationship, just drop this constraint.