82. What is Authorization and Integrity manager?
It is the program module, which tests for the satisfaction of integrity constraint and checks the authority of user to access data.
83. What are stand-alone procedures?
Procedures that are not part of a package are known as stand-alone because they independently defined. A good example of a stand-alone procedure is one written in a SQL*Forms application. These types of procedures are not available for reference from other Oracle tools. Another limitation of stand-alone procedures is that they are compiled at run time, which slows execution.
84. What are cursors give different types of cursors?
PL/SQL uses cursors for all database information accesses statements. The language supports the use two types of cursors
85. What is cold backup and hot backup (in case of Oracle)?
Cold Backup: It is copying the three sets of files (database files, redo logs, and control file) when the instance is shut down. This is a straight file copy, usually from the disk directly to tape. You must shut down the instance to guarantee a consistent copy. If a cold backup is performed, the only option available in the event of data file loss is restoring all the files from the latest backup. All work performed on the database since the last backup is lost.
Hot Backup: Some sites (such as worldwide airline reservations systems) cannot shut down the database while making a backup copy of the files. The cold backup is not an available option.
86. What is meant by Proactive, Retroactive and Simultaneous Update.
Proactive Update: The updates that are applied to database before it becomes effective in real world.
Retroactive Update: The updates that are applied to database after it becomes effective in real world.
Simulatneous Update: The updates that are applied to database at the same time when it becomes effective in real world.