Object is a software bundle of variables and related methods. Objects have state and behavior.
2.What do you mean by inheritance?
Inheritance is the process of creating new classes, called derived classes, from existing classes or base classes. The derived class inherits all the capabilities of the base class, but can add embellishments and refinements of its own.
3.What is Boyce Codd Normal form?
A relation schema R is in BCNF with respect to a set F of functional dependencies if for all functional dependencies in F+ of the form a-> , where a and b is a subset of R, at least one of the following holds:
* a- > b is a trivial functional dependency (b is a subset of a)
* a is a superkey for schema R
4.What is virtual class and friend class?
Friend classes are used when two or more classes are designed to work together and need access to each other’s implementation in ways that the rest of the world shouldn’t be allowed to have. In other words, they help keep private things private. For instance, it may be desirable for class DatabaseCursor to have more privilege to the internals of class Database than main() has.
5.How do you find out if a linked-list has an end? (i.e. the list is not a cycle)
You can find out by using 2 pointers. One of them goes 2 nodes each time. The second one goes at 1 nodes each time. If there is a cycle, the one that goes 2 nodes each time will eventually meet the one that goes slower.
If that is the case, then you will know the linked-list is a cycle.
6.What is the difference between realloc() and free()?
The free subroutine frees a block of memory previously allocated by the malloc subroutine. Undefined results occur if the Pointer parameter is not a valid pointer. If the Pointer parameter is a null value, no action will occur. The realloc subroutine changes the size of the block of memory pointed to by the Pointer parameter to the number of bytes specified by the Size parameter and returns a new pointer to the block. The pointer specified by the Pointer parameter must have been created with the malloc, calloc, or realloc subroutines and not been deallocated with the free or realloc subroutines. Undefined results occur if the Pointer parameter is not a valid pointer.
7.What is function overloading and operator overloading?
Function overloading: C++ enables several functions of the same name to be defined, as long as these functions have different sets of parameters (at least as far as their types are concerned). This capability is called function overloading. When an overloaded function is called, the C++ compiler selects the proper function by examining the number, types and order of the arguments in the call. Function overloading is commonly used to create several functions of the same name that perform similar tasks but on different data types.
Operator overloading allows existing C++ operators to be redefined so that they work on objects of user-defined classes. Overloaded operators are syntactic sugar for equivalent function calls. They form a pleasant facade that doesn’t add anything fundamental to the language (but they can improve understandability and reduce maintenance costs).
8.What is the difference between declaration and definition?
The declaration tells the compiler that at some later point we plan to present the definition of this declaration.
E.g.: void stars () //function declaration
The definition contains the actual implementation.
E.g.: void stars () // declarator
for(int j=10; j > =0; j–) //function body
cout << *;
9.What are the advantages of inheritance?
It permits code reusability. Reusability saves time in program development. It encourages the reuse of proven and debugged high-quality software, thus reducing problem after a system becomes functional.
10.How do you write a function that can reverse a linked-list?
head->next = 0;
tail->next = head;
node* pre = head;
node* cur = head->next;
node* curnext = cur->next;
head->next = 0;
cur-> next = head;
for(; curnext!=0; )
cur->next = pre;
pre = cur;
cur = curnext;
curnext = curnext->next;
curnext->next = cur;