12. What is Protocol?
A protocol is a set of rules that govern all aspects of information communication.
13. What are the key elements of protocols?
The key elements of protocols are
It refers to the structure or format of the data, that is the order in which they are presented.
It refers to the meaning of each section of bits.
Timing refers to two characteristics: When data should be sent and how fast they can be sent.
14. What are the key design issues of a computer Network?
b. Cost-effective Resource Sharing
c. Support for common Services
15. Define Bandwidth and Latency?
Network performance is measured in Bandwidth (throughput) and Latency (Delay). Bandwidth of a network is given by the number of bits that can be transmitted over the network in a certain period of time. Latency corresponds to how long it t5akes a message to travel from one end off a network to the other. It is strictly measured in terms of time.
16. Define Routing?
The process of determining systematically hoe to forward messages toward the destination nodes based on its address is called routing.
17. What is a peer-peer process?
The processes on each machine that communicate at a given layer are called peer-peer process.
18. When a switch is said to be congested?
It is possible that a switch receives packets faster than the shared link can accommodate and stores in its memory, for an extended period of time, then the switch will eventually run out of buffer space, and some packets will have to be dropped and in this state is said to congested state.
19. What is semantic gap?
Defining a useful channel involves both understanding the applications requirements and recognizing the limitations of the underlying technology. The gap between what applications expects and what the underlying technology can provide is called semantic gap.
20. What is Round Trip Time?
The duration of time it takes to send a message from one end of a network to the other and back, is called RTT.