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Order of execution of apex code:
1. Before triggers:
If we update child records in before triggers then parent record automatically update.
2. Validation rules:
If validation matches the criteria then error will populate in same page.
Runs most system validation steps again, such as verifying that all required fields have a non-null value, and runs any user-defined validation rules. The only system validation that Salesforce does not run a second time (when the request comes from a standard UI edit page) is the enforcement of layout-specific rules.
*Note: Saves the record to the database, but does not commit yet.
3. After Triggers:
4. Assignment Rules:
5. Auto Response Rules:
6. Workflow Rules:
If there are workflow field updates, updates the record again.
7. Escalation Rules:
If the record contains a roll-up summary field or is part of a cross-object workflow, performs calculations and updates the roll-up summary field in the parent record. Parent record goes through save procedure.
If the parent record is updated, and a grand-parent record contains a roll-up summary field or is part of a cross-object workflow, performs calculations and updates the roll-up summary field in the parent record. Grand-parent record goes through save procedure.
Executes Criteria Based Sharing evaluation.
Commits all DML operations to the database.
Executes post-commit logic, such as sending emails