SAP ABAP Interview Questions and Answers Part-1
1. What is an ABAP?
ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming) is a high level programming language created by the German software company SAP. It is currently positioned as the language for programming SAP’s Web Application Server, part of its NetWeaver platform for building business applications. Its syntax is somewhat similar to COBOL.
2. What is an ABAP data dictionary?
ABAP 4 data dictionary describes the logical structures of the objects used in application development and shows how they are mapped to the underlying relational database in tables/views.
3. What are domains and data element?
Domains:Domain is the central object for describing the technical characteristics of an attribute of an business objects. It describes the value range of the field. Data Element: It is used to describe the semantic definition of the table fields like description the field. Data element describes how a field can be displayed to end-user.
4. What is foreign key relationship?
A relationship which can be defined between tables and must be explicitly defined at field level. Foreign keys are used to ensure the consistency of data. Data entered should be checked against existing data to ensure that there are now contradiction. While defining foreign key relationship cardinality has to be specified. Cardinality mentions how many dependent records or how referenced records are possible.
Describe data classes.
Master data: It is the data which is seldom changed. Transaction data: It is the data which is often changed. Organization data: It is a customizing data which is entered in the system when the system is configured and is then rarely changed. System data:It is the data which R/3 system needs for itself.
5. What are indexes?
Indexes are described as a copy of a database table reduced to specific fields. This data exists in sorted form. This sorting form ease fast access to the field of the tables. In order that other fields are also read, a pointer to the associated record of the actual table are included in the index. The indexes are activated along with the table and are created automatically with it in the database.
6. Difference between transparent tables and pooled tables.
Transparent tables: Transparent tables in the dictionary has a one-to-one relation with the table in database. Its structure corresponds to single database field. Table in the database has the same name as in the dictionary. Transparent table holds application data. Pooled tables. Pooled tables in the dictionary has a many-to-one relation with the table in database. Table in the database has the different name as in the dictionary. Pooled table are stored in table pool at the database level.
7.What is an ABAP/4 Query?
ABAP/4 Query is a powerful tool to generate simple reports without any coding. ABAP/4 Query can generate the following 3 simple reports: Basic List: It is the simple reports. Statistics: Reports with statistical functions like Average, Percentages. Ranked Lists: For analytical reports. – For creating a ABAP/4 Query, programmer has to create user group and a functional group. Functional group can be created using with or without logical database table. Finally, assign user group to functional group. Finally, create a query on the functional group generated.
8. What is BDC programming?
Transferring of large/external/legacy data into SAP system using Batch Input programming. Batch input is a automatic procedure referred to as BDC(Batch Data Communications). The central component of the transfer is a queue file which receives the data vie a batch input programs and groups associated data into “sessions”.
9. What are the functional modules used in sequence in BDC?
These are the 3 functional modules which are used in a sequence to perform a data transfer successfully using BDC programming: BDC_OPEN_GROUP – Parameters like Name of the client, sessions and user name are specified in this functional modules. BDC_INSERT – It is used to insert the data for one transaction into a session. BDC_CLOSE_GROUP – This is used to close the batch input session.
10. What are internal tables?
Internal tables are a standard data type object which exists only during the runtime of the program. They are used to perform table calculations on subsets of database tables and for re-organizing the contents of database tables according to users need.