2. What are the difference between clustered and a non-clustered index?
A clustered index is a special type of index that reorders the way records in the table are physically stored. Therefore table can have only one clustered index. The leaf nodes of a clustered index contain the data pages.
A non clustered index is a special type of index in which the logical order of the index does not match the physical stored order of the rows on disk. The leaf node of a non clustered index does not consist of the data pages. Instead, the leaf nodes contain index rows.
3. What are the different index configurations a table can have?
A table can have one of the following index configurations:
A clustered index
A clustered index and many nonclustered indexes
A nonclustered index
Many nonclustered indexes
4. What are different types of Collation Sensitivity?
Case sensitivity – A and a, B and b, etc.
Kana Sensitivity – When Japanese kana characters Hiragana and Katakana are treated differently, it is called Kana sensitive.
Width sensitivity – A single-byte character (half-width) and the same character represented as a double-byte character (full-width) are treated differently than it is width sensitive.
5. What is OLTP (Online Transaction Processing)?
In OLTP – online transaction processing systems relational database design use the discipline of data modeling and generally follow the Codd rules of data normalization in order to ensure absolute data integrity. Using these rules complex information is broken down into its most simple structures (a table) where all of the individual atomic level elements relate to each other and satisfy the normalization rules.
6. What’s the difference between a primary key and a unique key?
Both primary key and unique key enforces uniqueness of the column on which they are defined. But by default primary key creates a clustered index on the column, where are unique creates a nonclustered index by default. Another major difference is that, primary key doesn’t allow NULLs, but unique key allows one NULL only.
7. What is difference between DELETE and TRUNCATE commands?
Delete command removes the rows from a table based on the condition that we provide with a WHERE clause. Truncate will actually remove all the rows from a table and there will be no data in the table after we run the truncate command.
TRUNCATE is faster and uses fewer system and transaction log resources than DELETE.
TRUNCATE removes the data by deallocating the data pages used to store the table’s data, and only the page deallocations are recorded in the transaction log.
TRUNCATE removes all rows from a table, but the table structure, its columns, constraints, indexes and so on, remains. The counter used by an identity for new rows is reset to the seed for the column.
You cannot use TRUNCATE TABLE on a table referenced by a FOREIGN KEY constraint. Because TRUNCATE TABLE is not logged, it cannot activate a trigger.
TRUNCATE cannot be rolled back.
TRUNCATE is DDL Command.
TRUNCATE Resets identity of the table
DELETE removes rows one at a time and records an entry in the transaction log for each deleted row.
If you want to retain the identity counter, use DELETE instead. If you want to remove table definition and its data, use the DROP TABLE statement.
DELETE Can be used with or without a WHERE clause
DELETE Activates Triggers.
DELETE can be rolled back.
DELETE is DML Command.
DELETE does not reset identity of the table.
Note: DELETE and TRUNCATE both can be rolled back when surrounded by TRANSACTION if the current session is not closed. If TRUNCATE is written in Query Editor surrounded by TRANSACTION and if session is closed, it can not be rolled back but DELETE can be rolled back.
8. When is the use of UPDATE_STATISTICS command?
This command is basically used when a large processing of data has occurred. If a large amount of deletions any modification or Bulk Copy into the tables has occurred, it has to update the indexes to take these changes into account. UPDATE_STATISTICS updates the indexes on these tables accordingly.
9. What is the difference between a HAVING CLAUSE and a WHERE CLAUSE?
They specify a search condition for a group or an aggregate. But the difference is that HAVING can be used only with the SELECT statement. HAVING is typically used in a GROUP BY clause. When GROUP BY is not used, HAVING behaves like a WHERE clause. Having Clause is basically used only with the GROUP BY function in a query whereas WHERE Clause is applied to each row before they are part of the GROUP BY function in a query.
10. What are the properties and different Types of Sub-Queries?
Properties of Sub-Query
A sub-query must be enclosed in the parenthesis.
A sub-query must be put in the right hand of the comparison operator, and
A sub-query cannot contain an ORDER-BY clause.
A query can contain more than one sub-query.
Types of Sub-Query
Single-row sub-query, where the sub-query returns only one row.
Multiple-row sub-query, where the sub-query returns multiple rows,. and
Multiple column sub-query, where the sub-query returns multiple columns