Throughput number of processes that complete their execution per time unit
Turnaround time amount of time to execute a particular process
Waiting time amount of time a process has been waiting in the ready queue
Response time amount of time it takes from when a request was submitted until the first response is produced, not output (for time-sharing environment)
22. What is Memory-Management Unit (MMU)?
Hardware device that maps virtual to physical address. In MMU scheme, the value in the relocation register is added to every address generated by a user process at the time it is sent to memory.
->The user program deals with logical addresses; it never sees the real physical addresses
23. What is a Real-Time System?
A real time process is a process that must respond to the events within a certain time period. A real time operating system is an operating system that can run real time processes successfully
24. What is a trap and trapdoor?
Trapdoor is a secret undocumented entry point into a program used to grant access without normal methods of access authentication. A trap is a software interrupt, usually the result of an error condition.
25. When is a system in safe state?
The set of dispatchable processes is in a safe state if there exists at least one temporal order in which all processes can be run to completion without resulting in a deadlock.
26. Explain the concept of the Distributed systems?
Distributed systems work in a network. They can share the network resources, communicate with each other.
27. What is cache-coherency?
In a multiprocessor system there exist several caches each may containing a copy of same variable A. Then a change in one cache should immediately be reflected in all other caches this process of maintaining the same value of a data in all the caches s called cache-coherency.
28. What is a long term scheduler & short term schedulers?
Long term schedulers are the job schedulers that select processes from the job queue and load them into memory for execution. The short term schedulers are the CPU schedulers that select a process from the ready queue and allocate the CPU to one of them.
29. Explain the meaning of mutex.
Mutex is the short form for Mutual Exclusion object. A mutex allows multiple threads for sharing the same resource. The resource can be file. A mutex with a unique name is created at the time of starting a program. A mutex must be locked from other threads, when any thread that needs the resource. When the data is no longer used / needed, the mutex is set to unlock.
30. What is cycle stealing?
We encounter cycle stealing in the context of Direct Memory Access (DMA). Either the DMA controller can use the data bus when the CPU does not need it, or it may force the CPU to temporarily suspend operation. The latter technique is called cycle stealing. Note that cycle stealing can be done only at specific break points in an instruction cycle.a